In recent years and after numerous published works, gynecologists have convinced us of the great importance of both an adequate start in weight and a correct gain throughout the pregnancy. There are many risks for the mother and the fetus when this does not happen.
The body mass index (BMI) is the ratio between weight and height squared, with the ideal being between 20 and 25.
Depending on the BMI at the beginning, the indications will be different for each woman. The recommendations of eating for two and other old topics such as cravings to justify the intake of harmful foods are far away.
In a woman who starts below her BMI, the gain must be greater than in another woman with obesity, in which it can be recommended to increase 6-7 kg or even not weight gain if the obesity is of greater degree. In general, the increase should range between 9 and 11 kg taking into account that in the first trimester the increase is usually 1.5-2 kg and the rest are made between the other two trimesters when the mobility is somewhat reduced.
The food must be balanced and varied, eating everything but not abusing anything.
- Distribute the meals well, making 5-6 intakes. Avoid prolonged fasting of more than 3-4 hours.
- The digestions slow down and reflux increases because it is advisable to chew food well and not go to bed immediately after meals.
- Daily consumption of dairy products, semi-skimmed milk, cheese, yoghurts … they are a source of calcium and vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency is implicated in many pathologies.
- Consume fruit but without exceeding 6-7 pieces a day, some have a high content of sugar or even fats (bananas, melons, avocados, cherimoyas, medlars) so they can be taken but not abused.
- White and blue fish 2-3 times per week, do not abuse salmon or swordfish.
- Lean meats, veal, chicken cow (without skin) and turkey mainly. Other meats (rabbit, beef, pork tenderloin, quail …) can be consumed but less often.
- 3-4 eggs per week.
- Do not abuse bread, rice, pasta, potatoes and legumes, but all this depending on the weight.
- Olive oil is the most recommended although others can be used (sunflower, corn, soy)
- It enhances the preparation of food in forms that require less oil: griddle, sautéed, raw, steam, boiled, oven, charcoal grill.
- Avoid fritters, batters, breaded, stews and stews.
- Season with salt, ideally iodized, vinegar, garlic, onion and herbs and aromatic spices. Avoid sauces, creams, or cream.
- Drink water regularly 2-3 liters a day. During pregnancy increase the requirements and losses (urine, sweating …) its consumption favors the normal frequency of bowel movements, prevents urinary infections, improves acidity and prevents hypotension that many pregnant women have, even in periods of higher temperature.
- Caffeine yes but with a lot of moderation. No more than 1-2 cups of coffee or tea a day. You can take infusions.
- Better natural juices since the packaged ones have a high content of sugars.
- Avoid the consumption of industrial bakery, pastry, pastry.
Following these recommendations decreases the risk of complications during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, hypertension, preeclampsia, mechanical problems, lumbalgias, lumbociaticas and fetal complications, preterm delivery, low birth weight and even severe fetal malformations are increased in obese women.
Many of these complications have repercussions even in the adult life of these children, something that has been discussed in recent years under the concept of fetal programming of adult diseases.
Pregnancy is an ideal time to change and improve many habits and continue with those healthy practices for the rest of your life.